Vitamin D Deficiency among Children Aged 1-5 Years with Severe Pneumonia in comparison to Healthy Controls

  • Anupama Thanka Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram¬†
  • Gopika Sekhar Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram
  • Mili Thomas Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram
  • KE Elizabeth Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District
Keywords: Sun Exposure, Exclusion Diets, Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Insufficiency, Vitamin D Deficiency, Severe Pneumonia

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D Deficiency is on the rise and the effect of Vitamin D deficiency in various diseases like respiratory illness is being increasingly recognized. Hence this study was planned.
Objectives: To asses Dietary pattern, sun exposure, place of residence, Immunization status, anthropometry and Vitamin D levels among children-aged-1-5 years with severe pneumonia in comparison to healthy controls and find the association between Vitamin D deficiency and severe pneumonia.
Methods: Relevant parameters were assessed among 33 children with pneumonia and 33 healthy controls. Vitamin D was assessed using CLIA and was categorized into Normal (>30 ng/ml), Insufficient (20-19 ng/ml) and Deficient (<20 ng/ml) and both insufficient and deficient were included in low Vitamin D category. The data analyzed using SPSS version 24.
Results: Children belonged to Middle and Upper Lower Socio-Economic status. Mean age, gender, and Immunization status were comparable in both groups. 73% among cases and 49% controls were from rural setting. Malnutrition was more in the pneumonia group. Exclusive breastfeeding rate during first 6 months was lower than Kerala NFHS 5 data of 55%. Milk and Egg exclusion diet was noted in 12% and there was a significant association between exclusion diet and low Vitamin D status (P-0.015). Adequate sun exposure was noted in only 18% in the total children, 15% cases and 21% controls. 91% with adequate sun exposure had normal Vitamin D levels. The mean Vitamin D level was (34.13+ 14.01) ng/ml in cases Vs. (36.14 + 9.48) ng/ml in controls. Among the total children, 36% had low Vitamin D level and 6% were in the deficient category. Proportion of children with low Vitamin D were significantly more among cases than controls (51.5% vs 21.2%: P- 0.011).
Conclusions: Dietary pattern, sun exposure and Vitamin D levels were suboptimum among the study children. Exclusion diets and reduced sun exposure were associated with low Vitamin D levels. Those with severe pneumonia had significantly lower Vitamin D levels compared to normal control children. Hence a closer look at this public health problem is recommended in order to optimize dietary pattern, sun exposure and Vitamin D Status among children in health and diseases.

Author Biographies

Anupama Thanka, Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram 

Department of Pediatrics

Gopika Sekhar, Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram

 Department of Pediatrics

Mili Thomas, Ananthapuri Hospital & Research Institute, Thiruvananthapuram

Department of Pediatrics

KE Elizabeth, Sree Mookambika Institute of Medical Sciences, Kulasekharam, Kanyakumari District

Department of Pediatrics

Published
2023-12-30
How to Cite
Thanka, A., Sekhar, G., Thomas, M., & Elizabeth, K. (2023). Vitamin D Deficiency among Children Aged 1-5 Years with Severe Pneumonia in comparison to Healthy Controls. Kerala Medical Journal, 16(1), 37-40. https://doi.org/10.52314/kmj.2023.v16i1.618
Section
Brief Communication